FASD & the Justice System


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Term Definition
Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) is the old name for ARND, Static Encephalopathy and Neurobehavioural Disorder. This term is not diagnosed in Canada and is used less and less often today.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a medical diagnosis used to describe an individual born with permanent brain damage, growth deficiencies and three facial birth defects resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. Confirmation of maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is not required for this rare diagnosis. FAS occurs in about 1% of all alcohol-affected births.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder is the umbrella term used to describe the range of defects and disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. These can include brain damage, vision and hearing difficulties, bones, limbs and fingers that are not properly formed, heart, kidney, liver and other organ damage and slow growth. FASD is not a medical diagnosis but describes a spectrum of medical disabilities.
Frontal Lobes
The largest and most anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere. This area controls impulses and judgment. Contains the prefrontal cortex, which controls what are called the executive functions.